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Federal Sentencing

3551. Authorized sentences

(a) In General.
Except as otherwise specifically provided, a defendant who has been found guilty of an offense described in any Federal statute, including sections 13 and 1153 of this title, other than an Act of Congress applicable exclusively in the District of Columbia or the Uniform Code of Military Justice, shall be sentenced in accordance with the provisions of this chapter so as to achieve the purposes set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 3553(a)(2) to the extent that they are applicable in light of all the circumstances of the case.

(b) Individuals.
An individual found guilty of an offense shall be sentenced, in accordance with the provisions of section 3553, to -
(1) a term of probation as authorized by subchapter B;
(2) a fine as authorized by subchapter C; or
(3) a term of imprisonment as authorized by subchapter D.
A sentence to pay a fine may be imposed in addition to any other sentence. A sanction authorized by section 3554, 3555, or 3556 may be imposed in addition to the sentence required by this subsection.

(c) Organizations.
An organization found guilty of an offense shall be sentenced, in accordance with the provisions of section 3553, to -
(1) a term of probation as authorized by subchapter B; or
(2) a fine as authorized by subchapter C. A sentence to pay a fine may be imposed in addition to a sentence to probation. A sanction authorized by section 3554, 3555, or 3556 may be imposed in addition to the sentence required by this subsection.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1988; amended Pub. L. 101-647, title XVI, Sec. 1602, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4843.)

§ 3553. Imposition of a sentence

(a) Factors To Be Considered in Imposing a Sentence.
The court shall impose a sentence sufficient, but not greater than necessary, to comply with the purposes set forth in paragraph (2) of this subsection. The court, in determining the particular sentence to be imposed, shall consider -

(1) the nature and circumstances of the offense and the history and characteristics of the defendant;
(2) the need for the sentence imposed -
(A) to reflect the seriousness of the offense, to promote respect for the law, and to provide just punishment for the offense;
(B) to afford adequate deterrence to criminal conduct;
(C) to protect the public from further crimes of the defendant; and
(D) to provide the defendant with needed educational or vocational training, medical care, or other correctional treatment in the most effective manner;
(3) the kinds of sentences available;
(4) the kinds of sentence and the sentencing range established for -
(A) the applicable category of offense committed by the applicable category of defendant as set forth in the guidelines issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994(a)(1) of title 28, United States Code, and that are in effect on the date the defendant is sentenced; or
(B) in the case of a violation of probation or supervised release, the applicable guidelines or policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994(a)(3) of title 28, United States Code;
(5) any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2) that is in effect on the date the defendant is sentenced;
(6) the need to avoid unwarranted sentence disparities among defendants with similar records who have been found guilty of similar conduct; and
(7) the need to provide restitution to any victims of the offense.

(b) Application of Guidelines in Imposing a Sentence.
The court shall impose a sentence of the kind, and within the range, referred to in subsection (a)(4) unless the court finds that there exists an aggravating or mitigating circumstance of a kind, or to a degree, not adequately taken into consideration by the Sentencing Commission in formulating the guidelines that should result in a sentence different from that described. In determining whether a circumstance was adequately taken into consideration, the court shall consider only the sentencing guidelines, policy statements, and official commentary of the Sentencing Commission. In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline, the court shall impose an appropriate sentence, having due regard for the purposes set forth in subsection (a)(2). In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline in the case of an offense other than a petty offense, the court shall also have due regard for the relationship of the sentence imposed to sentences prescribed by guidelines applicable to similar offenses and offenders, and to the applicable policy statements of the Sentencing Commission.

(c) Statement of Reasons for Imposing a Sentence.
The court, at the time of sentencing, shall state in open court the reasons for its imposition of the particular sentence, and, if the sentence -
(1) is of the kind, and within the range, described in subsection (a)(4), and that range exceeds 24 months, the reason for imposing a sentence at a particular point within the range; or
(2) is not of the kind, or is outside the range, described in subsection (a)(4), the specific reason for the imposition of a sentence different from that described.
If the court does not order restitution, or orders only partial restitution, the court shall include in the statement the reason therefor. The court shall provide a transcription or other appropriate public record of the court's statement of reasons to the Probation System, and, if the sentence includes a term of imprisonment, to the Bureau of Prisons.

(d) Presentence Procedure for an Order of Notice.
Prior to imposing an order of notice pursuant to section 3555, the court shall give notice to the defendant and the Government that it is considering imposing such an order. Upon motion of the defendant or the Government, or on its own motion, the court shall -
(1) permit the defendant and the Government to submit affidavits and written memoranda addressing matters relevant to the imposition of such an order;
(2) afford counsel an opportunity in open court to address orally the appropriateness of the imposition of such an order; and
(3) include in its statement of reasons pursuant to subsection (c) specific reasons underlying its determinations regarding the nature of such an order.
Upon motion of the defendant or the Government, or on its own motion, the court may in its discretion employ any additional procedures that it concludes will not unduly complicate or prolong the sentencing process.

(e) Limited Authority To Impose a Sentence Below a Statutory Minimum.
Upon motion of the Government, the court shall have the authority to impose a sentence below a level established by statute as minimum sentence so as to reflect a defendant's substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person who has committed an offense. Such sentence shall be imposed in accordance with the guidelines and policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994 of title 28, United States Code.

(f) Limitation on Applicability of Statutory Minimums in Certain Cases.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the case of an offense under section 401, 404, or 406 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841, 844, 846) or section 1010 or 1013 of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 961, (FOOTNOTE 1) 963), the court shall impose a sentence pursuant to guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission under section 994 of title 28 without regard to any statutory minimum sentence, if the court finds at sentencing, after the Government has been afforded the opportunity to make a recommendation, that - (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''960,''.
(1) the defendant does not have more than 1 criminal history point, as determined under the sentencing guidelines;
(2) the defendant did not use violence or credible threats of violence or possess a firearm or other dangerous weapon (or induce another participant to do so) in connection with the offense;
(3) the offense did not result in death or serious bodily injury to any person;
(4) the defendant was not an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor of others in the offense, as determined under the sentencing guidelines and was not engaged in a continuing criminal enterprise, as defined in 21 U.S.C. 848; and
(5) not later than the time of the sentencing hearing, the defendant has truthfully provided to the Government all information and evidence the defendant has concerning the offense or offenses that were part of the same course of conduct or of a common scheme or plan, but the fact that the defendant has no relevant or useful other information to provide or that the Government is already aware of the information shall not preclude a determination by the court that the defendant has complied with this requirement.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1989; amended Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec. 1007(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-7; Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 8(a), 9(a), 80(a), 81(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3593, 3619; Pub. L. 100-182, Sec. 3, 16(a), 17, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1266, 1269, 1270; Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7102, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4416; Pub. L. 103-322, title VIII, Sec. 80001(a), title XXVIII, Sec. 280001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1985, 2095.)

§ 3554. Order of criminal forfeiture
The court, in imposing a sentence on a defendant who has been found guilty of an offense described in section 1962 of this title or in title II or III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 shall order, in addition to the sentence that is imposed pursuant to the provisions of section 3551, that the defendant forfeit property to the United States in accordance with the provisions of section 1963 of this title or section 413 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1990.)

§ 3555. Order of notice to victims

The court, in imposing a sentence on a defendant who has been found guilty of an offense involving fraud or other intentionally deceptive practices, may order, in addition to the sentence that is imposed pursuant to the provisions of section 3551, that the defendant give reasonable notice and explanation of the conviction, in such form as the court may approve, to the victims of the offense. The notice may be ordered to be given by mail, by advertising in designated areas or through designated media, or by other appropriate means. In determining whether to require the defendant to give such notice, the court shall consider the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable and shall consider the cost involved in giving the notice as it relates to the loss caused by the offense, and shall not require the defendant to bear the costs of notice in excess of $20,000.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1991.)

§ 3556. Order of restitution
The court, in imposing a sentence on a defendant who has been found guilty of an offense may order restitution in accordance with sections 3663 and 3664.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1991; amended Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 20(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3596.)

§ 3559. Sentencing classification of offenses
(a) Classification.
An offense that is not specifically classified by a letter grade in the section defining it, is classified if the maximum term of imprisonment authorized is -
(1) life imprisonment, or if the maximum penalty is death, as a Class A felony;
(2) twenty-five years or more, as a Class B felony;
(3) less than twenty-five years but ten or more years, as a Class C felony;
(4) less than ten years but five or more years, as a Class D felony;
(5) less than five years but more than one year, as a Class E felony;
(6) one year or less but more than six months, as a Class A misdemeanor;
(7) six months or less but more than thirty days, as a Class B misdemeanor;
(8) thirty days or less but more than five days, as a Class C misdemeanor; or
(9) five days or less, or if no imprisonment is authorized, as an infraction.

(b) Effect of Classification
Except as provided in subsection (c), an offense classified under subsection (a) carries all the incidents assigned to the applicable letter designation, except that the maximum term of imprisonment is the term authorized by the law describing the offense.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1991; amended Pub. L. 100-185, Sec. 5, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279.) 

SUBCHAPTER B – PROBATION

§ 3561. Sentence of probation
(a) In General.
A defendant who has been found guilty of an offense may be sentenced to a term of probation unless -
(1) the offense is a Class A or Class B felony and the defendant is an individual;
(2) the offense is an offense for which probation has been expressly precluded; or
(3) the defendant is sentenced at the same time to a term of imprisonment for the same or a different offense that is not a petty offense.

(c) Authorized Terms.
The authorized terms of probation are -
(1) for a felony, not less than one nor more than five years;
(2) for a misdemeanor, not more than five years; and
(3) for an infraction, not more than one year.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1992; amended Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 10(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3593; Pub. L. 100-182, Sec. 7, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1267.)

§ 3562. Imposition of a sentence of probation
(a) Factors To Be Considered in Imposing a Term of Probation.
The court, in determining whether to impose a term of probation, and, if a term of probation is to be imposed, in determining the length of the term and the conditions of probation, shall consider the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable.

(b) Effect of Finality of Judgment.
Notwithstanding the fact that a sentence of probation can subsequently be -
(1) modified or revoked pursuant to the provisions of section 3564 or 3565;
(2) corrected pursuant to the provisions of rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and section 3742; or
(3) appealed and modified, if outside the guideline range, pursuant to the provisions of section 3742; a judgment of conviction that includes such a sentence constitutes a final judgment for all other purposes.

(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1992; amended Pub. L. 101-647, title XXXV, Sec. 3583, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4930.)

§ 3563. Conditions of probation
(a) Mandatory Conditions.
The court shall provide, as an explicit condition of a sentence of probation -
(1) for a felony, a misdemeanor, or an infraction, that the defendant not commit another Federal, State, or local crime during the term of probation;
(2) for a felony, that the defendant also abide by at least one condition set forth in subsection (b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(13), unless the court finds on the record that extraordinary circumstances exist that would make such a condition plainly unreasonable, in which event the court shall impose one or more of the other conditions set forth under subsection (b);
If the court has imposed and ordered execution of a fine and placed the defendant on probation, payment of the fine or adherence to the court-established installment schedule shall be a condition of the probation.

(b) Discretionary Conditions.
The court may provide, as further conditions of a sentence of probation, to the extent that such conditions are reasonably related to the factors set forth in section 3553(a)(1) and (a)(2) and to the extent that such conditions involve only such deprivations of liberty or property as are reasonably necessary for the purposes indicated in section 3553(a)(2), that the defendant -
(1) support his dependents and meet other family responsibilities;
(2) pay a fine imposed pursuant to the provisions of subchapter C;
(3) make restitution to a victim of the offense under sections 3663 and 3664 (but not subject to the limitations of section 3663(a));
(4) give to the victims of the offense the notice ordered pursuant to the provisions of section 3555;
(5) work conscientiously at suitable employment or pursue conscientiously a course of study or vocational training that will equip him for suitable employment;
(6) refrain, in the case of an individual, from engaging in a specified occupation, business, or profession bearing a reasonably direct relationship to the conduct constituting the offense, or engage in such a specified occupation, business, or profession only to a stated degree or under stated circumstances;
(7) refrain from frequenting specified kinds of places or from associating unnecessarily with specified persons;

(8) refrain from excessive use of alcohol, or any use of a narcotic drug or other controlled substance, as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802), without a prescription by a licensed medical practitioner;
(9) refrain from possessing a firearm, destructive device, or other dangerous weapon;
(10) undergo available medical, psychiatric, or psychological treatment, including treatment for drug or alcohol dependency, as specified by the court, and remain in a specified institution if required for that purpose;
(11) remain in the custody of the Bureau of Prisons during nights, weekends, or other intervals of time, totaling no more than the lesser of one year or the term of imprisonment authorized for the offense, during the first year of the term of probation;
(12) reside at, or participate in the program of, a community corrections facility (including a facility maintained or under contract to the Bureau of Prisons) for all or part of the term of probation;
(13) work in community service as directed by the court;
(14) reside in a specified place or area, or refrain from residing in a specified place or area;
(15) remain within the jurisdiction of the court, unless granted permission to leave by the court or a probation officer;
(16) report to a probation officer as directed by the court or the probation officer;
(17) permit a probation officer to visit him at his home or elsewhere as specified by the court;
(18) answer inquiries by a probation officer and notify the probation officer promptly of any change in address or employment;
(19) notify the probation officer promptly if arrested or questioned by a law enforcement officer;
(20) remain at his place of residence during nonworking hours and, if the court finds it appropriate, that compliance with this condition be monitored by telephonic or electronic signaling devices, except that a condition under this paragraph may be imposed only as an alternative to incarceration;

(c) Modifications of Conditions.
The court may modify, reduce, or enlarge the conditions of a sentence of probation at any time prior to the expiration or termination of the term of probation, pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to the modification of probation and the provisions applicable to the initial setting of the conditions of probation.

(d) Written Statement of Conditions.

The court shall direct that the probation officer provide the defendant with a written statement that sets forth all the conditions to which the sentence is subject, and that is sufficiently clear and specific to serve as a guide for the defendant's conduct and for such supervision as is required.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1993; amended Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 11(a), 12(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3594; Pub. L. 100-182, Sec. 10, 18, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1267, 1270.)

SUBCHAPTER C - FINES

§ 3571. Sentence of fine
(a) In General.
A defendant who has been found guilty of an offense may be sentenced to pay a fine.
(b) Fines for Individuals.
Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, an individual who has been found guilty of an offense may be fined not more than the greatest of -
(1) the amount specified in the law setting forth the offense;
(2) the applicable amount under subsection (d) of this section;
(3) for a felony, not more than $250,000;
(4) for a misdemeanor resulting in death, not more than $250,000;
(5) for a Class A misdemeanor that does not result in death, not more than $100,000;
(6) for a Class B or C misdemeanor that does not result in death, not more than $5,000; or
(7) for an infraction, not more than $5,000.
(c) Fines for Organizations.
Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, an organization that has been found guilty of an offense may be fined not more than the greatest of -
(1) the amount specified in the law setting forth the offense;
(2) the applicable amount under subsection (d) of this section;
(3) for a felony, not more than $500,000;
(4) for a misdemeanor resulting in death, not more than $500,000;
(5) for a Class A misdemeanor that does not result in death, not more than $200,000;
(6) for a Class B or C misdemeanor that does not result in death, not more than $10,000; and

(7) for an infraction, not more than $10,000.

(d) Alternative Fine Based on Gain or Loss.
If any person derives pecuniary gain from the offense, or if the offense results in pecuniary loss to a person other than the defendant, the defendant may be fined not more than the greater of twice the gross gain or twice the gross loss, unless imposition of a fine under this subsection would unduly complicate or prolong the sentencing process.

(e) Special Rule for Lower Fine Specified in Substantive Provision.
If a law setting forth an offense specifies no fine or a fine that is lower than the fine otherwise applicable under this section and such law, by specific reference, exempts the offense from the applicability of the fine otherwise applicable under this section, the defendant may not be fined more than the amount specified in the law setting forth the offense.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1995; amended Pub. L. 100-185, Sec. 6, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1280.)

§ 3572. Imposition of a sentence of fine and related matters
(a) Factors To Be Considered.
In determining whether to impose a fine, and the amount, time for payment, and method of payment of a fine, the court shall consider, in addition to the factors set forth in section 3553(a) -
(1) the defendant's income, earning capacity, and financial resources;
(2) the burden that the fine will impose upon the defendant, any person who is financially dependent on the defendant, or any other person (including a government) that would be responsible for the welfare of any person financially dependent on the defendant, relative to the burden that alternative punishments would impose;
(3) any pecuniary loss inflicted upon others as a result of the offense;
(4) whether restitution is ordered or made and the amount of such restitution;
(5) the need to deprive the defendant of illegally obtained gains from the offense;
(6) the expected costs to the government of any imprisonment, supervised release, or probation component of the sentence;
(7) whether the defendant can pass on to consumers or other persons the expense of the fine; and
(8) if the defendant is an organization, the size of the organization and any measure taken by the organization to discipline any officer, director, employee, or agent of the organization responsible for the offense and to prevent a recurrence of such an offense.

(b) Fine Not to Impair Ability to Make Restitution.

If, as a result of a conviction, the defendant has the obligation to make restitution to a victim of the offense, the court shall impose a fine or other monetary penalty only to the extent that such fine or penalty will not impair the ability of the defendant to make restitution.

(c) Effect of Finality of Judgment.
Notwithstanding the fact that a sentence to pay a fine can subsequently be -
(1) modified or remitted under section 3573;
(2) corrected under rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and section 3742; or
(3) appealed and modified under section 3742;
a judgment that includes such a sentence is a final judgment for all other purposes.

(d) Time, Method of Payment, and Related Items.
A person sentenced to pay a fine or other monetary penalty shall make such payment immediately, unless, in the interest of justice, the court provides for payment on a date certain or in installments. If the court provides for payment in installments, the installments shall be in equal monthly payments over the period provided by the court, unless the court establishes another schedule. If the judgment permits other than immediate payment, the period provided for shall not exceed five years, excluding any period served by the defendant as imprisonment for the offense.

(e) Alternative Sentence Precluded.
At the time a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court may not impose an alternative sentence to be carried out if the fine is not paid.

(f) Responsibility for Payment of Monetary Obligation Relating to Organization.
If a sentence includes a fine, special assessment, or other monetary obligation (including interest) with respect to an organization, each individual authorized to make disbursements for the organization has a duty to pay the obligation from assets of the organization. If such an obligation is imposed on a director, officer, shareholder, employee, or agent of an organization, payments may not be made, directly or indirectly, from assets of the organization, unless the court finds that such payment is expressly permissible under applicable State law.

(g) Security for Stayed Fine.
If a sentence imposing a fine is stayed, the court shall, absent exceptional circumstances (as determined by the court) -
(1) require the defendant to deposit, in the registry of the district court, any amount of the fine that is due;
(2) require the defendant to provide a bond or other security to ensure payment of the fine; or

(3) restrain the defendant from transferring or dissipating assets.

(h) Delinquency.
A fine is delinquent if a payment is more than 30 days late.

(i) Default.
A fine is in default if a payment is delinquent for more than 90 days. When a fine is in default, the entire amount of the fine is due within 30 days after notification of the default, notwithstanding any installment schedule.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1995; amended Pub. L. 100-185, Sec. 7, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1280.)

SUBCHAPTER D – IMPRISONMENT

§ 3581. Sentence of imprisonment
(a) In General.
A defendant who has been found guilty of an offense may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment.

(b) Authorized Terms.
The authorized terms of imprisonment are -
(1) for a Class A felony, the duration of the defendant's life or any period of time;
(2) for a Class B felony, not more than twenty-five years;
(3) for a Class C felony, not more than twelve years;
(4) for a Class D felony, not more than six years;
(5) for a Class E felony, not more than three years;
(6) for a Class A misdemeanor, not more than one year;
(7) for a Class B misdemeanor, not more than six months;
(8) for a Class C misdemeanor, not more than thirty days; and
(9) for an infraction, not more than five days.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1998.)

§ 3582. Imposition of a sentence of imprisonment

(a) Factors To Be Considered in Imposing a Term of Imprisonment.
The court, in determining whether to impose a term of imprisonment, and, if a term of imprisonment is to be imposed, in determining the length of the term, shall consider the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, recognizing that imprisonment is not an appropriate means of promoting correction and rehabilitation. In determining whether to make a recommendation concerning the type of prison facility appropriate for the defendant, the court shall consider any pertinent policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2).

(b) Effect of Finality of Judgment.
Notwithstanding the fact that a sentence to imprisonment can subsequently be -
(1) modified pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c);
(2) corrected pursuant to the provisions of rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and section 3742; or
(3) appealed and modified, if outside the guideline range, pursuant to the provisions of section 3742;
a judgment of conviction that includes such a sentence constitutes a final judgment for all other purposes.

(c) Modification of an Imposed Term of Imprisonment.
The court may not modify a term of imprisonment once it has been imposed except that -
(1) in any case -
(A) the court, upon motion of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, may reduce the term of imprisonment, after considering the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, if it finds that -
(i) extraordinary and compelling reasons warrant such a reduction; (FOOTNOTE 1) (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by ''or''.
(ii) the defendant is at least 70 years of age, has served at least 30 years in prison, pursuant to a sentence imposed under section 3559(c), for the offense or offenses for which the defendant is currently imprisoned, and a determination has been made by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons that the defendant is not a danger to the safety of any other person or the community, as provided under section 3142(g); and that such a reduction is consistent with applicable policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission; and

(B) the court may modify an imposed term of imprisonment to the extent otherwise expressly permitted by statute or by Rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and
(2) in the case of a defendant who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment based on a sentencing range that has subsequently been lowered by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(o), upon motion of the defendant or the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, or on its own motion, the court may reduce the term of imprisonment, after considering the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, if such a reduction is consistent with applicable policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission.

(d) Inclusion of an Order To Limit Criminal Association of Organized Crime and Drug Offenders.
The court, in imposing a sentence to a term of imprisonment upon a defendant convicted of a felony set forth in chapter 95 (racketeering) or 96 (racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations) of this title or in the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), or at any time thereafter upon motion by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons or a United States attorney, may include as a part of the sentence an order that requires that the defendant not associate or communicate with a specified person, other than his attorney, upon a showing of probable cause to believe that association or communication with such person is for the purpose of enabling the defendant to control, manage, direct, finance, or otherwise participate in an illegal enterprise.
(Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 212(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1998.)

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